References Pertaining to Community in Online Courses

Biggs, L., Haqqani, A., Martell, H., & Provinciano, A. (2012). Establishing community in online learning environments. Retrieved from

Filipczak, B. (1995). Putting the learning into distance learning. TRAINING, 32(10), 111–118.

Hara, N., & Kling, R. (2000). Students’ distress with a web-based distance education course: An ethnographic study of participants’ experiences. Information, Communication and Society, 3(4), 557–579.

Haythornthwaite, C., Kazmer, M., Robins, J., & Shoemaker, S. (2000). Community development among distance learners: Temporal and technological dimensions. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 6(1). Retrieved from

Kerka, S. (1996). Distance learning, the Internet, and the world wide web. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from


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